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玄机图解特 创建时间 &lt
时间: 2019-06-05
c?在.NET使用JSON作为数据交换格式_知识库_博客园
我们知道在.NET中我们有多种对象序列化的方式,如XML方式序列化、Binary序列化,其中XML序列化是一种比较通用的在各语言之间传递数据的方式。除了这两种序列化方式之外,在.NET中还可以使用JSON序列化。  JSON(JavaScript Object Notation)是一种轻量级轻量级的数据交换格式,并且它独立于编程语言,与XML序列化相比,JSON序列化后产生的数据一般要比XML序列化后数据体积小,所以在Facebook等知名网站中都采用了JSON作为数据交换方式。在.NET中有三种常用的JSON序列化的类,分别是  System.Web.Script.Serialization.JavaScriptSerializer类、System.Runtime.Serialization.Json.DataContractJsonSerializer类和Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert类。  为了便于下面的演示,下面提供一个类的代码: [DataContract] publicclass User { ///<summary> /// 编号 ///</summary> [DataMember] publicint UserId { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 用户名 ///</summary> [DataMember] publicstring UserName { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 创建时间 ///</summary> [DataMember] [JsonConverter(typeof(IsoDateTimeConverter))] public DateTime CreateDate { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 生日 ///</summary> [DataMember] [JsonConverter(typeof(JavaScriptDateTimeConverter))] public DateTime Birthday { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 相关URL ///</summary> [DataMember] public List<string> Urls { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 薪水 ///</summary>//[ScriptIgnore]//使用JavaScriptSerializer序列化时不序列化此字段 //[IgnoreDataMember]//使用DataContractJsonSerializer序列化时不序列化此字段 //[JsonIgnore]//使用JsonConvert序列化时不序列化此字段publicint Salary { get; set; } ///<summary> /// 权利级别 ///</summary> [DataMember] public Priority Priority { get; set; } public User() { Urls =new List<string>(); } } ///<summary> /// 权利级别 ///</summary>publicenum Priority:byte { Lowest=0x1, BelowNormal=0x2, Normal=0x4, AboveNormal=0x8, Highest=0x16 }  使用System.Web.Script.Serialization.JavaScriptSerializer类  System.Web.Script.Serialization.JavaScriptSerializer类是.NET类库中自带的一种JSON序列化实现,在.NET Framework3.5及以后版本中可以使用这个类,这个类位于System.Web.Extensions.dll中,使用这个类是必须添加对这个dll的引用。  下面的代码是使用JavaScriptSerializer进行序列化和反序列化的例子:publicstaticvoid JavaScriptSerializerDemo(){ User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30),Birthday=DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.Highest, Salary =500000 }; //JavaScriptSerializer类在System.Web.Extensions.dll中,注意添加这个引用 JavaScriptSerializer serializer =new JavaScriptSerializer(); //JSON序列化string result=serializer.Serialize(user); Console.WriteLine("使用JavaScriptSerializer序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); //JSON反序列化 user = serializer.Deserialize<User>(result); Console.WriteLine("使用JavaScriptSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId:{0},UserName: {1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority);}  说明:如果不想序列化某个字段,可以在字段前面加[JsonIgnore]标记。  使用System.Runtime.Serialization.Json.DataContractJsonSerializer类  System.Runtime.Serialization.Json.DataContractJsonSerializer类位于System.ServiceModel.Web.dll中,使用这个类时除了需要添加对System.ServiceModel.Web.dll的引用之外,还需要添加System.Runtime.Serialization.dll的引用,注意这个类也是在.NET Framework3.5及以后版本中可以使用。  下面是使用DataContractJsonSerializer类的例子:publicstaticvoid DataContractJsonSerializerDemo(){ User user =new User { UserId =1,免费资料, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.AboveNormal, Salary =50000 }; string result =string.Empty; //DataContractJsonSerializer类在System.ServiceModel.Web.dll中,注意添加这个引用 DataContractJsonSerializer serializer =new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(User)); using (MemoryStream stream =new MemoryStream()) { //JSON序列化 serializer.WriteObject(stream, user); result = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(stream.ToArray()); Console.WriteLine("使用DataContractJsonSerializer序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); } //JSON反序列化byte[] buffer = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(result); using (MemoryStream stream =new MemoryStream(buffer)) { user = serializer.ReadObject(stream) as User; Console.WriteLine("使用DataContractJsonSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId: {0},UserName:{1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority); }}  注意:要使用DataContractJsonSerializer类进行序列化和反序列化,必须给类加上[DataContract]属性,对要序列化的字段加上[DataMember]属性,如果不想序列化某个字段或者属性,可以加上[IgnoreDataMember]属性。  使用Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert类  Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert类是非微软提供的一个JSON序列化和反序列的开源免费的类库(下载网址是:http://www.codeplex.com/json/),它提供了更灵活的序列化和反序列化控制,并且如果你的开发环境使用的是.NET Framework3.5及以后版本的话,你就可以使用Linq to JSON,这样一来面对一大段的数据不必一一解析,你可以使用Linq to JSON解析出你关心的那部分即可,非常方便。  下面是使用Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert类的例子:publicstaticvoid JsonConvertDemo(){ User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.BelowNormal, Salary =5000 }; //JsonConvert类在Newtonsoft.Json.Net35.dll中,注意到http://www.codeplex.com/json/下载这个dll并添加这个引用 //JSON序列化string result = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(user); Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); //JSON反序列化 user = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<User>(result); Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert反序列化后的结果:UserId:{0},UserName: {1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority);}publicstaticvoid JsonConvertLinqDemo(){ User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="周公", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-8), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-32), Priority = Priority.Lowest, Salary =500, Urls =new List<string> { "http://zhoufoxcn.blog.51cto.com", "http://blog.csdn.net/zhoufoxcn" } }; //JsonConvert类在Newtonsoft.Json.Net35.dll中,注意到http://www.codeplex.com/json/下载这个dll并添加这个引用 //JSON序列化string result = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(user); Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); //使用Linq to JSON JObject jobject = JObject.Parse(result); JToken token = jobject["Urls"]; List<string> urlList =new List<string>(); foreach (JToken t in token) { urlList.Add(t.ToString()); } Console.Write("使用Linq to JSON反序列化后的结果:["); for (int i =0; i < urlList.Count -1;i++ ) { Console.Write(urlList[i] +","); } Console.WriteLine(urlList[urlList.Count -1] +"]");}  注意:如果有不需要序列化的字段,可以给该字段添加[JsonIgnore]标记。在Newtonsoft这个类库中对于日期的序列化有多种方式,可以类的DataTime成员添加上对应的标记,这样在进行序列化和反序列化时就会按照指定的方式进行,在本例中User类的CreateDate属性添加的属性是[JsonConverter(typeof(IsoDateTimeConverter))],而Birthday属性添加的属性是[JsonConverter(typeof(JavaScriptDateTimeConverter))],从序列化的结果可以看出来它们最终的表现形式并不一样。  本文中所有的示例代码如下:1. using System; 2. using System.Collections.Generic; 3. using System.Linq; 4. using System.Text; 5. using System.Web.Script.Serialization; 6. using System.Runtime.Serialization.Json; 7. using System.IO; 8. using System.Runtime.Serialization; 9. using Newtonsoft.Json; 10. using Newtonsoft.Json.Linq; 11. using Newtonsoft.Json.Converters; 12. 13. namespace JSONDemo 14. { 15. class Program 16. { 17. staticvoid Main(string[] args) 18. { 19. JavaScriptSerializerDemo(); 20. DataContractJsonSerializerDemo(); 21. JsonConvertDemo(); 22. JsonConvertLinqDemo(); 23. Console.ReadLine(); 24. } 25. 26. publicstaticvoid JavaScriptSerializerDemo() 27. { 28. User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30),Birthday=DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.Highest, Salary =500000 }; 29. //JavaScriptSerializer类在System.Web.Extensions.dll中,注意添加这个引用 30. JavaScriptSerializer serializer =new JavaScriptSerializer(); 31. //JSON序列化 32. string result=serializer.Serialize(user); 33. Console.WriteLine("使用JavaScriptSerializer序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); 34. //JSON反序列化 35. user = serializer.Deserialize<User>(result); 36. Console.WriteLine("使用JavaScriptSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId:{0},六台宝典现场开奖,UserName:{1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority); 37. 38. } 39. 40. publicstaticvoid DataContractJsonSerializerDemo() 41. { 42. User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.AboveNormal, Salary =50000 }; 43. string result =string.Empty; 44. //DataContractJsonSerializer类在System.ServiceModel.Web.dll中,注意添加这个引用 45. DataContractJsonSerializer serializer =new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(User)); 46. 47. using (MemoryStream stream =new MemoryStream()) 48. { 49. //JSON序列化 50. serializer.WriteObject(stream, user); 51. result = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(stream.ToArray()); 52. Console.WriteLine("使用DataContractJsonSerializer序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); 53. } 54. 55. //JSON反序列化 56. byte[] buffer = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(result); 57. using (MemoryStream stream =new MemoryStream(buffer)) 58. { 59. user = serializer.ReadObject(stream) as User; 60. Console.WriteLine("使用DataContractJsonSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId:{0},UserName:{1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority); 61. } 62. } 63. 64. publicstaticvoid JsonConvertDemo() 65. { 66. User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="李刚", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-30), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-50), Priority = Priority.BelowNormal, Salary =5000 }; 67. //JsonConvert类在Newtonsoft.Json.Net35.dll中,注意到http://www.codeplex.com/json/下载这个dll并添加这个引用 68. //JSON序列化 69. string result = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(user); 70. Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); 71. //JSON反序列化 72. user = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<User>(result); 73. Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert反序列化后的结果:UserId:{0},UserName:{1},CreateDate:{2},Priority:{3}", user.UserId, user.UserName, user.CreateDate, user.Priority); 74. } 75. 76. publicstaticvoid JsonConvertLinqDemo() 77. { 78. User user =new User { UserId =1, UserName ="周公", CreateDate = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-8), Birthday = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-32), Priority = Priority.Lowest, Salary =500, Urls =new List<string> { "http://zhoufoxcn.blog.51cto.com", "http://blog.csdn.net/zhoufoxcn" } }; 79. //JsonConvert类在Newtonsoft.Json.Net35.dll中,注意到http://www.codeplex.com/json/下载这个dll并添加这个引用 80. //JSON序列化 81. string result = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(user); 82. Console.WriteLine("使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{0},长度:{1}", result, result.Length); 83. //使用Linq to JSON 84. JObject jobject = JObject.Parse(result); 85. JToken token = jobject["Urls"]; 86. List<string> urlList =new List<string>(); 87. foreach (JToken t in token) 88. { 89. urlList.Add(t.ToString()); 90. } 91. Console.Write("使用Linq to JSON反序列化后的结果:["); 92. for (int i =0; i < urlList.Count -1;i++ ) 93. { 94. Console.Write(urlList[i] +","); 95. } 96. Console.WriteLine(urlList[urlList.Count -1] +"]"); 97. } 98. } 99. 100. [DataContract] 101. publicclass User 102. { 103. ///<summary>104. /// 编号 105. ///</summary>106. [DataMember] 107. publicint UserId { get; set; } 108. ///<summary>109. /// 用户名 110. ///</summary>111. [DataMember] 112. publicstring UserName { get; set; } 113. ///<summary>114. /// 创建时间 115. ///</summary>116. [DataMember] 117. [JsonConverter(typeof(IsoDateTimeConverter))] 118. public DateTime CreateDate { get; set; } 119. ///<summary>120. /// 生日 121. ///</summary>122. [DataMember] 123. [JsonConverter(typeof(JavaScriptDateTimeConverter))] 124. public DateTime Birthday { get; set; } 125. ///<summary>126. /// 相关URL 127. ///</summary>128. [DataMember] 129. public List<string> Urls { get; set; } 130. ///<summary>131. /// 薪水 132. ///</summary>133. [ScriptIgnore]//使用JavaScriptSerializer序列化时不序列化此字段 134. [IgnoreDataMember]//使用DataContractJsonSerializer序列化时不序列化此字段 135. [JsonIgnore]//使用JsonConvert序列化时不序列化此字段 136. publicint Salary { get; set; } 137. ///<summary>138. /// 权利级别 139. ///</summary>140. [DataMember] 141. public Priority Priority { get; set; } 142. 143. public User() 144. { 145. Urls =new List<string>(); 146. } 147. } 148. ///<summary>149. /// 权利级别 150. ///</summary>151. publicenum Priority:byte 152. { 153. Lowest=0x1, 154. BelowNormal=0x2, 155. Normal=0x4, 156. AboveNormal=0x8, 157. Highest=0x16 158. } 159. }   程序的运行结果如下:使用JavaScriptSerializer序列化后的结果:{"UserId":1,"UserName":"李刚","CreateDate":"\/Date(353521211984)\/","Birthday":"\/Date(-277630788015)\/","Urls":[],"Priority":22},长度:127 使用JavaScriptSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId:1,UserName:李刚,CreateDate:1981-3-1516:20:11,Priority:Highest 使用DataContractJsonSerializer序列化后的结果:{"Birthday":"\/Date(-277630787953+0800)\/","CreateDate":"\/Date(353521212046+0800)\/","Priority":8,"Urls":[],"UserId":1,"UserName":"李刚"},长度:136 使用DataContractJsonSerializer反序列化后的结果:UserId:1,UserName:李刚,CreateDate:1981-3-160:20:12,Priority:AboveNormal 使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{"UserId":1,"UserName":"李刚","CreateDate":"1981-03-16T00:20:12.1875+08:00","Birthday":newDate(-277630787812),"Urls":[],"Priority":2},长度:132 使用JsonConvert反序列化后的结果:UserId:1,UserName:李刚,CreateDate:1981-3-160:20:12,Priority:BelowNormal 使用JsonConvert序列化后的结果:{"UserId":1,"UserName":"周公","CreateDate":"2003-03-16T00:20:12.40625+08:00","Birthday":newDate(290362812406),"Urls":["http://zhoufoxcn.blog.51cto.com","http://blog.csdn.net/zhoufoxcn"],"Priority":1},长度:198 使用LinqtoJSON反序列化后的结果:["http://zhoufoxcn.blog.51cto.com","http://blog.csdn.net/zhoufoxcn"]  总结:通过上面的例子大家可以看出Newtonsoft类库提供的JSON序列化和反序列的方式更加灵活,在实际开发中周公也一直使用Newtonsoft作为JSON序列化和反序列化的不二挑选。

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